Racial Equity
Homeownership Rate, by Race/Ethnicity


Homeownership Rate, by Race/Ethnicity

What does this measure?

The number of owner-occupied units (not rented) as a percent of all occupied units (not vacant) for various racial and ethnic groups.

Why is this important?

Historically, members of some racial and ethnic groups have suffered discrimination in buying homes and accessing home mortgages. A home is a vital financial asset for a family and an investment in both the local neighborhood and surrounding community.

How is our county doing?

Essex County had greater racial and ethnic disparities in homeownership rates than the nation. In 2017-21, 70% of Asian and white residents in Essex County owned their homes. Significantly higher than those for Black or African American residents (38%) and Hispanic residents (31%). Nationwide, homeownership was substantially higher among African American and Hispanic residents, at 43% and 49%, respectively, compared to Essex. The County's rates were similar to Massachusetts as a whole, except that a smaller share of Asian residents owned homes at the state level (55%).

Since 2000, the County's homeownership rate among Asian residents increased the most, by 19 percentage points, compared to increases of 13 points among African American and 10 points among Hispanic residents. The rate was steady for white residents.

Disparities differed among communities in Essex County. In Lawrence, the white homeownership rate (32%) was almost than half that of the County, while the Hispanic rate (24%) was 7 points lower. In Lynn, African American and Hispanic rates were similar to the County, while rates were lower among Asian and white residents, at 42% and 60%, respectively.

How do we compare to similar counties?

Compared to Essex, 2017-21 homeownership rates were higher for all racial and ethnic groups in Lake, IL, but especially so among Hispanic (58%) and white (80%) residents. In Middlesex, MA, rates were similar for most groups except Asian residents, who had a lower rate (57%) than Essex. Westchester, NY had similar disparities, but its rates were higher for Hispanics (37%), and slightly higher for white residents (73%).

Why do these disparities exist?

A variety of research has shown how disparities in homeownership are connected to racial inequities within systems beyond housing, including financial services, labor market and intergenerational wealth. Historic practices including redlining, exclusionary mortgage practices and restrictive covenants barring property from being owned by members of specific groups directly locked people out of homeownership. These had intergenerational effects when people of color were unable to benefit from wealth transfers of home equity as white homebuyers can. Since Black and Latino households generally have lower wages and wealth accumulation, they have less resources for down payments and higher debt to income ratios. With lower credit scores than other racial/ethnic groups, communities of color may be less likely to qualify for mortgages as underwriting standards increase. Many in the Black and Latino community may lack information about the home buying process and choose to stay renters. Discrimination during the home buying process also influences whether people of color buy a house. Researchers have found that during the search process, people of color were shown fewer houses and provided less information than whites.

Notes about the data

The multiyear figures are from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey. The bureau combined five years of responses to the survey to provide estimates for smaller geographic areas and increase the precision of its estimates. However, because the information came from a survey, the samples responding to the survey were not always large enough to produce reliable results, especially in small geographic areas. CGR has noted on data tables the estimates with relatively large margins of error. Estimates with three asterisks have the largest margins, plus or minus 50% or more of the estimate. Two asterisks mean plus or minus 35%-50%, and one asterisk means plus or minus 20%-35%. For all estimates, the confidence level is 90%, meaning there is 90% probability the true value (if the whole population were surveyed) would be within the margin of error (or confidence interval). The survey provides data on characteristics of the population that used to be collected only during the decennial census. Data for this indicator are released annually in December.





Homeownership Rate, by Race/Ethnicity, 2000
AsianBlack or African AmericanHispanicWhite
Essex County, MA51%25%21%68%
Beverly33%25%33%61%
Gloucester45%23%21%60%
Haverhill43%34%20%63%
Lawrence39%21%20%40%
Lynn36%23%18%53%
Methuen70%34%30%74%
Newburyport32%30%54%67%
Peabody55%47%22%73%
Salem42%10%13%53%
Andover72%45%45%80%
Boxford100%N/A100%97%
Danvers85%36%68%78%
Essex46%N/AN/A71%
GeorgetownN/AN/AN/A86%
GrovelandN/A100%N/A87%
Hamilton36%100%76%84%
Ipswich0%N/A43%73%
Lynnfield100%47%69%95%
ManchesterN/AN/AN/A71%
Marblehead46%21%100%76%
Merrimac0%N/A0%83%
Middleton47%N/AN/A86%
Nahant64%0%0%69%
NewburyN/A44%100%81%
North Andover71%57%40%73%
Rockport0%0%0%65%
Rowley0%N/AN/A77%
Salisbury100%42%100%68%
Saugus74%19%74%80%
Swampscott100%42%38%77%
Topsfield100%N/AN/A89%
WenhamN/AN/AN/A85%
West NewburyN/A100%0%93%
Middlesex County, MA44%29%26%65%
Lake County, IL73%43%58%82%
Westchester County, NY53%33%26%69%
Massachusetts41%31%21%66%
United States53%46%46%71%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.




Number of Homeowners by Race/Ethnicity, 2000
AsianBlack or African AmericanHispanicWhite
Essex County, MA2,3761,5174,633166,851
Beverly4738769,291
Gloucester3223287,429
Haverhill11214128313,220
Lawrence2511992,4705,463
Lynn44575379013,416
Methuen2035032911,361
Newburyport88344,968
Peabody956410812,933
Salem128411708,259
Andover46135458,340
Boxford300222,459
Danvers4121287,274
Essex600906
Georgetown0002,199
Groveland0801,768
Hamilton2119192,140
Ipswich00243,827
Lynnfield259243,898
Manchester0001,536
Marblehead247186,376
Merrimac0001,830
Middleton9001,965
Nahant18001,092
Newbury08162,000
North Andover27134586,710
Rockport0002,244
Rowley0001,509
Salisbury15882,052
Saugus8610467,765
Swampscott425154,318
Topsfield14001,829
Wenham0001,096
West Newbury0801,286
Middlesex County, MA12,1064,7144,640324,585
Lake County, IL5,4165,96611,256149,579
Westchester County, NY6,77814,9259,931174,950
Massachusetts29,76735,64425,8191,410,466
United States1,659,7945,549,2864,190,61359,667,254

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.




INDICATORS TREND | ESSEX COUNTY
People 65 or Older Living Alone Decreasing
Early Prenatal Care by Mother's Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Prevalence of Overweight Adults Not Applicable
Preterm Births Increasing
Infant Mortality Rate Maintaining
Children with Elevated Blood Lead Levels Decreasing
Children Living in Poverty Increasing
Children Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Disengaged Youth Maintaining
Live Births to Teen Mothers Decreasing
Youth Arrests Decreasing
Arts, Entertainment and Recreation Establishments Maintaining
Arts, Entertainment and Recreation Employment Maintaining
Tourism Spending Increasing
Voter Participation Rate Increasing
Charitable Contributions Maintaining
Protected Land Not Applicable
Days with Good Air Quality Increasing
Beach Contamination Increasing
Daily Water Use per Resident Decreasing
Crimes Against People Maintaining
Crimes Against Property Decreasing
Drug-Related Arrests Maintaining
Reports of Domestic Violence Increasing
Incarceration Rates Decreasing
Recidivism Decreasing
Households Without Vehicles Decreasing
Means of Transportation to Work Not Applicable
Traffic Injuries and Fatalities Maintaining
Households With Internet Access Not Applicable
Change in Total Population Increasing
Change in Population by Age/Sex Not Applicable
People with Disabilities Maintaining
Households by Type Not Applicable
Single-Parent Families by Sex Not Applicable
Single-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Change in Population by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Foreign-Born Population Increasing
Language Diversity Increasing
Change in Total Jobs Increasing
Change in Jobs by Sector Not Applicable
Change in Average Salary Increasing
Change in Average Salary by Sector Not Applicable
Average Salary by Sector Not Applicable
Median Earnings by Occupation by Gender Not Applicable
People Entering/Leaving County for Work Not Applicable
Employer Size Not Applicable
Self-Employment Revenue Increasing
Business Ownership by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Unemployment Rate Increasing
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Prekindergarten Participation Not Applicable
Female Enrollment in School Not Applicable
Chronically Absent Students Increasing
Per-Student Spending Increasing
Bullying Decreasing
Student Performance on Grade 3 Reading Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 8 Math by Student Group Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 10 English Language Arts Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 10 Math Not Applicable
High School Cohort Graduation Rate Increasing
High School Cohort Graduation Rate by Student Group Not Applicable
Education Levels of Adults Not Applicable
Bachelor's Degree or Higher by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Income in Relation to Poverty Level Not Applicable
People Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Median Household Income Increasing
Median Household Income by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Median Household Income by Household Type Not Applicable
Living Wage Rate by Household Type Not Applicable
Access to Financial Services, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Households Receiving Temporary Assistance Increasing
Households Receiving Federal Food Assistance Increasing
Participation in Food Assistance by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Earned Income Tax Credit Participation Decreasing
Economically Disadvantaged Students Increasing
Median Home Value Increasing
Cost of Homeownership Increasing
Cost of Renting Increasing
Homeownership Rates Maintaining
Homeownership Rates by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Homeless Persons Maintaining
People Without Health Insurance Decreasing
Medical Care Expenses Increasing
Prevalence of Children with Asthma Maintaining
Prevalence of Overweight Children Maintaining
Diabetes Incidence Decreasing
Chronic Disease Among Older Adults Increasing
Cancer Incidence Decreasing
Cancer Mortality Rate Decreasing
Heart Disease Mortality Rate Decreasing
Mortality Rate Decreasing
People who Smoke Not Applicable
Use of Illegal Drugs Not Applicable
Youth Use of Illegal Drugs Not Applicable
Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions Not Applicable
Drug Overdose Mortality Rate Increasing
Prevalence of Mental Illness Maintaining
Suicide Rate Maintaining
Children Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Single-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Change in Population by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 3 Reading Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 8 Math by Student Group Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 10 English Language Arts Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 10 Math Not Applicable
High School Cohort Graduation Rate by Student Group Not Applicable
Bachelor's Degree or Higher by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
People Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Median Household Income by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Participation in Food Assistance by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Homeownership Rates by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable