Children And Youth
Children Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity, 2013-17


Children Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity, 2013-17

What does this measure?

The number of children under 18 living below the federally defined poverty line, expressed as a percentage of all children under 18 within a racial and ethnic group. Poverty thresholds vary by family composition and year. In 2017, the threshold for a four-person family with two children was $24,858.

Why is this important?

Children raised in impoverished environments are at higher risk for a wide variety of health and social problems, including poor performance in school. The challenges they face in childhood can diminish their chances for successful adult lives. Throughout the nation, racial disparities across many indicators of well-being (including poverty rates) are persistent, troubling and in need of attention.

How is our county doing?

Poverty rates were much higher among African American (27%) and Hispanic (31%) children than among white children (11%) in 2013-17. Since 2000, this represented a decrease of 3 percentage points among Hispanic children and an increase of 3 percentage points among white children. The rate for African American children was flat since 2000.

Compared to Massachusetts, Essex County's poverty rate for white children was similar, while its rates were 5 percentage points lower for Hispanic children and 2 points lower for Black children. Rates in Essex were similar to the nation for Hispanic children, but 9 percentage points lower for Black children and 5 points lower for white children.

How do we compare to similar counties?

All the comparison counties had similar racial and ethnic disparities. Essex, however, had the highest poverty rate for Hispanic children compared to Lake, IL (20%), Westchester, NY (21%) and Middlesex, MA (26%). The rate for African American children in Essex was lower than Lake, but similar to Middlesex and higher than Westchester (22%).

Notes about the data

Poverty status is not reported for people in institutions, including college dormitories and military barracks, and people in living situations without conventional housing. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.

The multiyear figures are from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey. The bureau combined 5 years of responses to the survey to provide estimates for smaller geographic areas and increase the precision of its estimates. However, because the information came from a survey, the samples responding to the survey were not always large enough to produce reliable results, especially in small geographic areas. CGR has noted on data tables the estimates with relatively large margins of error. Estimates with three asterisks have the largest margins, plus or minus 50% or more of the estimate. Two asterisks mean plus or minus 35%-50%, and one asterisk means plus or minus 20%-35%. For all estimates, the confidence level is 90%, meaning there is 90% probability the true value (if the whole population were surveyed) would be within the margin of error (or confidence interval). The survey provides data on characteristics of the population that used to be collected only during the decennial census. Data for this indicator are released annually in December.

Children Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity, 2013-17
AsianBlack or African AmericanHispanicWhite
Essex County, MA14%**27%31%11%
Amesbury0%******6%******11%******4%******
Beverly8%******0%******32%******12%****
Gloucester10%******68%******36%******7%****
Haverhill0%******12%******32%**20%**
Lawrence28%******29%******32%27%
Lynn16%****34%**30%20%
Methuen16%******32%******25%**10%**
Newburyport0%******79%******0%******11%******
Peabody22%******24%******44%**13%**
Salem0%******14%******50%**17%**
Andover7%******0%******17%******3%******
Boxford0%******N/A******0%******8%******
Danvers36%******0%******22%******3%******
EssexN/A******N/A******N/A******7%******
Georgetown0%******0%******0%******3%******
GrovelandN/A******N/A******0%******2%******
Hamilton89%******0%******0%******6%******
Ipswich0%******100%******4%******6%******
Lynnfield0%******0%******0%******3%******
Manchester0%******N/A******N/A******0%******
Marblehead0%******0%******6%******3%******
MerrimacN/A******N/A******0%******11%******
MiddletonN/A******N/A******17%******2%******
NahantN/A******N/A******N/A******2%******
NewburyN/A******0%******0%******1%******
North Andover9%******0%******21%******5%****
RockportN/A******N/A******54%******4%******
Rowley0%******0%******N/A******7%******
Salisbury53%******0%******0%******6%******
Saugus0%******0%******22%******14%****
Swampscott0%******0%******0%******9%******
Topsfield0%******N/A******N/A******0%******
WenhamN/A******N/A******0%******0%******
West Newbury0%******N/A******0%******7%******
Middlesex County, MA8%28%26%7%
Lake County, IL4%**35%20%9%
Westchester County, NY8%**22%21%7%
Massachusetts12%29%36%11%
United States12%36%30%16%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.




Number of Children Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity, 2013-17
AsianBlack or African AmericanHispanicWhite
Essex County, MA870**2,15515,07213,118
Amesbury0******1******23******118******
Beverly16******0******201******764****
Gloucester7******103******80******314****
Haverhill0******51******1,625**2,165**
Lawrence94******397******5,8772,760
Lynn265****1,061**3,7601,445
Methuen66******178******1,109**736**
Newburyport0******123******0******343******
Peabody40******110******775**947**
Salem0******91******1,179**769**
Andover88******0******66******177******
Boxford0******0******0******123******
Danvers63******0******76******149******
Essex0******0******0******57******
Georgetown0******0******0******54******
Groveland0******0******0******32******
Hamilton155******0******0******107******
Ipswich0******40******9******151******
Lynnfield0******0******0******73******
Manchester0******0******0******0******
Marblehead0******0******20******146******
Merrimac0******0******0******143******
Middleton0******0******22******39******
Nahant0******0******0******11******
Newbury0******0******0******14******
North Andover39******0******138******315****
Rockport0******0******37******50******
Rowley0******0******0******88******
Salisbury37******0******0******80******
Saugus0******0******75******589****
Swampscott0******0******0******279******
Topsfield0******0******0******0******
Wenham0******0******0******0******
West Newbury0******0******0******80******
Middlesex County, MA2,8885,3989,42215,442
Lake County, IL537**4,42410,83711,964
Westchester County, NY927**6,65314,2629,716
Massachusetts9,91435,44983,435104,112
United States408,6053,671,8725,322,3917,899,618

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.




Children Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity, 2000
AsianBlack or African AmericanHispanicWhite
Essex County, MA17%27%34%8%
Beverly0%35%22%7%
Gloucester0%20%34%12%
Haverhill6%23%29%11%
Lawrence17%36%38%23%
Lynn29%28%32%18%
Methuen4%54%24%8%
Newburyport0%0%0%6%
Peabody17%15%29%5%
Salem10%17%29%9%
Andover3%0%32%3%
Boxford0%N/A0%1%
Danvers0%0%0%3%
Essex0%N/AN/A6%
GeorgetownN/AN/AN/A2%
Groveland0%0%0%7%
Hamilton32%N/A0%5%
Ipswich0%0%0%8%
Lynnfield0%0%0%2%
ManchesterN/AN/AN/A2%
Marblehead0%30%0%6%
MerrimacN/AN/A0%1%
MiddletonN/AN/AN/A2%
Nahant0%N/A0%3%
Newbury0%0%0%3%
North Andover3%0%38%3%
Rockport0%0%0%4%
RowleyN/AN/AN/A6%
SalisburyN/A0%43%9%
Saugus0%0%0%5%
Swampscott0%0%0%4%
Topsfield0%N/AN/A0%
WenhamN/AN/AN/A2%
West NewburyN/A0%0%4%
Middlesex County, MA13%17%26%6%
Lake County, IL2%22%16%5%
Westchester County, NY5%24%24%6%
Massachusetts18%27%37%8%
United States14%33%28%11%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.




Number of Children Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity, 2000
AsianBlack or African AmericanHispanicWhite
Essex County, MA9211,57310,11211,321
Beverly04657528
Gloucester01277720
Haverhill101055861,334
Lawrence1143346,1401,966
Lynn6909102,0102,222
Methuen1474394681
Newburyport000213
Peabody2617181458
Salem2153514503
Andover22064260
Boxford00021
Danvers000173
Essex00048
Georgetown00040
Groveland000128
Hamilton1400110
Ipswich000233
Lynnfield00055
Manchester00023
Marblehead0150271
Merrimac00013
Middleton00040
Nahant00018
Newbury00052
North Andover10053174
Rockport00055
Rowley00088
Salisbury0012153
Saugus000249
Swampscott000132
Topsfield0006
Wenham00018
West Newbury00048
Middlesex County, MA2,9242,2175,16714,852
Lake County, IL1563,1325,5316,660
Westchester County, NY5948,57710,3579,111
Massachusetts10,28728,13656,20993,438
United States343,7253,467,9003,339,1705,469,560

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.




INDICATORS TREND | ESSEX COUNTY
Early Prenatal Care by Mother's Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Preterm Births Increasing
Infant Mortality Rate Maintaining
Children with Elevated Blood Lead Levels Decreasing
Children Living in Poverty Increasing
Children Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Child Abuse and Neglect Increasing
Disengaged Youth Decreasing
Live Births to Teen Mothers Decreasing
Youth Arrests Decreasing
Arts, Entertainment and Recreation Establishments Maintaining
Arts, Entertainment and Recreation Employment Maintaining
Tourism Spending Maintaining
Voter Participation Rate Increasing
Charitable Contributions Maintaining
Protected Land Not Applicable
Days with Good Air Quality Increasing
Beach Contamination Decreasing
Daily Water Use per Resident Decreasing
Crimes Against People Increasing
Crimes Against Property Increasing
Drug-Related Arrests Maintaining
Reports of Domestic Violence Increasing
Incarceration Rates Decreasing
Recidivism Decreasing
Households Without Vehicles Maintaining
Means of Transportation to Work Not Applicable
Traffic Injuries and Fatalities Maintaining
Households With Internet Access Increasing
Change in Total Population Increasing
Change in Population by Age/Gender Not Applicable
People 65 or Older Living Alone Decreasing
People with Disabilities Increasing
Households by Type Not Applicable
Single-Parent Families by Gender Not Applicable
Single-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Change in Population by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Foreign-Born Population Increasing
Language Diversity Increasing
Change in Total Jobs Increasing
Change in Jobs by Sector Not Applicable
Change in Average Salary Increasing
Change in Average Salary by Sector Not Applicable
Average Salary by Sector Not Applicable
Median Earnings by Occupation by Gender Not Applicable
People Entering/Leaving County for Work Not Applicable
Employer Size Not Applicable
Self-Employment Revenue Maintaining
Unemployment Rate Increasing
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Prekindergarten Participation Not Applicable
Female Enrollment in School Not Applicable
Chronically Absent Students Increasing
Per-Student Spending Maintaining
Bullying Maintaining
Student Performance on Grade 3 Reading Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 8 Math by Student Group Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 10 English Language Arts Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 10 Math Not Applicable
High School Cohort Graduation Rate Increasing
High School Cohort Graduation Rate by Student Group Not Applicable
Education Levels of Adults Not Applicable
Bachelor's Degree or Higher by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Income in Relation to Poverty Level Not Applicable
People Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Median Household Income Maintaining
Median Household Income by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Median Household Income by Household Type Not Applicable
Living Wage Rate by Household Type Not Applicable
Households Receiving Temporary Assistance Maintaining
Households Receiving Federal Food Assistance Increasing
Participation in Food Assistance by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Earned Income Tax Credit Participation Maintaining
Economically Disadvantaged Students Increasing
Median Home Value Maintaining
Housing Affordability for Homeowners Increasing
Housing Affordability for Renters Increasing
Homeownership Rates Maintaining
Homeownership Rates by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Homeless Persons Increasing
People Without Health Insurance Decreasing
Medical Care Expenses Maintaining
Prevalence of Children with Asthma Maintaining
Prevalence of Overweight Children Decreasing
Prevalence of Overweight Adults Not Applicable
Diabetes Incidence Decreasing
Chronic Disease Among Older Adults Increasing
Cancer Incidence Decreasing
Cancer Mortality Rate Decreasing
Heart Disease Mortality Rate Decreasing
Mortality Rate Decreasing
People who Smoke Not Applicable
Use of Illegal Drugs Not Applicable
Youth Use of Illegal Drugs Not Applicable
Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions Not Applicable
Drug Overdose Mortality Rate Increasing
Prevalence of Mental Illness Maintaining
Suicide Rate Maintaining