Financial Self-Sufficiency
People Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity, 2013-17


People Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity, 2013-17

What does this measure?

The proportion of people within racial and ethnic groups with incomes below the poverty line. Poverty thresholds vary by family composition and year. In 2017, the threshold for a four-person family with two children was $24,858.

Why is this important?

The percentage of people in poverty in various racial and ethnic groups is a measure of the overall economic health of these groups and may reflect disparities in access to economic opportunity. It also indicates the level of need for social and government supports.

How is our county doing?

In 2013-17, 24% of Hispanic residents and 18% of African American residents in Essex County had incomes below the poverty line, compared to 12% among Asian residents and 9% among white residents. Since 2000, rates declined by 4 percentage points for Hispanics and by 3 points for African Americans. The rate for white residents increased slightly, by 2 points. The rate for Asian residents was flat.

Essex had a lower poverty rate for African Americans than Massachusetts and the nation, at 21% and 25%, respectively. The poverty rate for Hispanic residents of Essex was lower than the state (28%), but slightly higher than the U.S. (22%). The national rate for whites, at 12%, was higher than in Essex. Within the County, Lawrence had some of the highest poverty rates for Hispanic and white residents, at 26% and 22%, respectively.

How do we compare to similar counties?

Comparable counties had the same basic disparities among racial and ethnic groups. Essex County had a higher poverty rate for Hispanic residents than Middlesex, MA (21%), Lake, IL (15%) and Westchester (17%). Its rate for African Americans was quite a bit lower than Lake (24%). Poverty rates for Asians were lower in Westchester (7%) and Lake (6%).

Notes about the data

Poverty status is not reported for people in institutions, including college dormitories and military barracks, and people in living situations without conventional housing. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.

The multiyear figures are from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey. The bureau combined five years of responses to the survey to provide estimates for smaller geographic areas and increase the precision of its estimates. However, because the information came from a survey, the samples responding to the survey were not always large enough to produce reliable results, especially in small geographic areas. CGR has noted on data tables the estimates with relatively large margins of error. Estimates with three asterisks have the largest margins, plus or minus 50% or more of the estimate. Two asterisks mean plus or minus 35%-50%, and one asterisk means plus or minus 20%-35%. For all estimates, the confidence level is 90%, meaning there is 90% probability the true value (if the whole population were surveyed) would be within the margin of error (or confidence interval). The survey provides data on characteristics of the population that used to be collected only during the decennial census. Data for this indicator are expected to be released annually in December.

People Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity, 2013-17
AsianBlack or African AmericanHispanicWhite
Essex County, MA12%**18%24%9%
Amesbury0%******4%******18%******5%**
Beverly19%******13%******32%******8%**
Gloucester7%******49%******20%******8%**
Haverhill7%******7%******24%**12%
Lawrence13%******22%****26%22%
Lynn13%**19%**24%14%
Methuen17%******17%******16%**7%**
Newburyport0%******69%******6%******6%******
Peabody20%******16%******28%****8%
Salem10%******19%******35%**12%
Andover6%******2%******18%******4%**
Boxford0%******N/A******0%******3%******
Danvers18%******1%******21%******6%**
EssexN/A******N/A******0%******6%******
Georgetown0%******0%******5%******4%******
Groveland0%******0%******4%******2%******
Hamilton77%******0%******14%******6%****
Ipswich1%******68%******8%******7%****
Lynnfield0%******11%******0%******2%******
Manchester0%******N/A******49%******4%******
Marblehead0%******0%******8%******5%**
Merrimac0%******N/A******0%******5%******
Middleton0%******N/A******32%******4%******
Nahant0%******0%******24%******5%******
Newbury0%******0%******0%******4%******
North Andover7%******10%******24%******5%**
RockportN/A******0%******38%******5%****
Rowley2%******0%******8%******6%******
Salisbury39%******0%******11%******9%**
Saugus12%******8%******16%******8%**
Swampscott13%******0%******6%******6%****
Topsfield0%******100%******25%******1%******
Wenham0%******100%******6%******2%******
West Newbury0%******N/A******0%******6%******
Middlesex County, MA11%19%21%7%
Lake County, IL6%**24%15%7%
Westchester County, NY7%16%17%7%
Massachusetts14%21%28%9%
United States12%25%22%12%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Data not shown where sample sizes were too small. Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.




Number of People Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity, 2013-17
AsianBlack or African AmericanHispanicWhite
Essex County, MA3,020**5,35136,26052,072
Amesbury0******5******83******755**
Beverly111******40******484******2,910**
Gloucester22******191******113******2,261**
Haverhill60******124******3,097**6,243
Lawrence245******1,069****16,2839,528
Lynn978**2,398**8,5016,138
Methuen324******370******2,187**2,732**
Newburyport0******179******22******984******
Peabody141******273******1,375****3,730
Salem102******449******2,612**3,720
Andover269******16******230******1,030**
Boxford0******0******0******228******
Danvers110******2******239******1,500**
Essex0******0******0******228******
Georgetown0******0******15******292******
Groveland0******0******11******162******
Hamilton307******0******12******467****
Ipswich1******71******34******865****
Lynnfield0******8******1******219******
Manchester0******0******42******197******
Marblehead0******0******53******888**
Merrimac0******0******0******361******
Middleton0******0******91******305******
Nahant0******0******9******164******
Newbury0******0******0******293******
North Andover123******91******416******1,170**
Rockport0******0******56******356****
Rowley1******0******1******336******
Salisbury56******0******26******776**
Saugus157******61******213******2,009**
Swampscott13******0******28******837****
Topsfield0******3******20******71******
Wenham0******1******6******59******
West Newbury0******0******0******258******
Middlesex County, MA18,58514,87123,59377,782
Lake County, IL2,891**10,69722,21038,340
Westchester County, NY3,99522,13739,25441,938
Massachusetts57,08998,196202,789453,465
United States2,011,2179,807,00912,269,45227,607,156

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Data not shown where sample sizes were too small. Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.




People Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity, 2000
AsianBlack or African AmericanHispanicWhite
Essex County, MA13%21%28%7%
Beverly0%18%23%5%
Gloucester4%15%24%9%
Haverhill13%17%24%8%
Lawrence12%29%31%18%
Lynn23%22%26%13%
Methuen4%24%21%6%
Newburyport7%21%20%5%
Peabody15%9%24%5%
Salem11%16%23%8%
Andover3%6%25%4%
Boxford0%N/A8%1%
Danvers0%6%0%3%
Essex0%N/AN/A7%
GeorgetownN/AN/A0%3%
Groveland0%0%0%4%
Hamilton27%0%0%5%
Ipswich5%0%0%7%
Lynnfield0%0%0%2%
Manchester0%N/AN/A5%
Marblehead0%22%0%4%
Merrimac100%N/A62%3%
Middleton35%N/A0%3%
Nahant0%0%0%3%
Newbury0%11%0%3%
North Andover6%0%23%3%
Rockport0%0%0%4%
Rowley0%N/AN/A4%
Salisbury27%0%34%6%
Saugus9%0%0%4%
Swampscott0%0%0%4%
Topsfield26%0%0%2%
WenhamN/AN/AN/A3%
West Newbury0%0%23%4%
Middlesex County, MA11%14%20%5%
Lake County, IL3%17%14%4%
Westchester County, NY6%18%20%5%
Massachusetts16%21%30%7%
United States13%25%23%9%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Data not shown where sample sizes were too small. Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.




Number of People Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity, 2000
AsianBlack or African AmericanHispanicWhite
Essex County, MA2,1643,56921,73140,175
Beverly0741681,979
Gloucester7331352,471
Haverhill881991,2363,954
Lawrence24385713,3186,035
Lynn1,3262,0064,2067,649
Methuen441228712,400
Newburyport7851777
Peabody94314012,038
Salem981711,0142,649
Andover61111291,017
Boxford001098
Danvers080697
Essex000215
Georgetown000242
Groveland000262
Hamilton5100344
Ipswich400910
Lynnfield000272
Manchester000249
Marblehead0200823
Merrimac708158
Middleton1900216
Nahant00092
Newbury070191
North Andover590108659
Rockport000286
Rowley000224
Salisbury14012474
Saugus29001,068
Swampscott000492
Topsfield130091
Wenham000115
West Newbury0012149
Middlesex County, MA9,9276,23812,59265,097
Lake County, IL7016,82912,54320,254
Westchester County, NY2,49122,06327,55235,550
Massachusetts36,58868,035122,636366,337
United States1,257,2378,146,1467,797,87418,847,674

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Data not shown where sample sizes were too small. Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.




INDICATORS TREND | ESSEX COUNTY
Early Prenatal Care by Mother's Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Preterm Births Increasing
Infant Mortality Rate Maintaining
Children with Elevated Blood Lead Levels Decreasing
Children Living in Poverty Increasing
Children Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Child Abuse and Neglect Increasing
Disengaged Youth Decreasing
Live Births to Teen Mothers Decreasing
Youth Arrests Decreasing
Arts, Entertainment and Recreation Establishments Maintaining
Arts, Entertainment and Recreation Employment Maintaining
Tourism Spending Maintaining
Voter Participation Rate Increasing
Charitable Contributions Maintaining
Protected Land Not Applicable
Days with Good Air Quality Increasing
Beach Contamination Decreasing
Daily Water Use per Resident Decreasing
Crimes Against People Increasing
Crimes Against Property Increasing
Drug-Related Arrests Maintaining
Reports of Domestic Violence Increasing
Incarceration Rates Decreasing
Recidivism Decreasing
Households Without Vehicles Maintaining
Means of Transportation to Work Not Applicable
Traffic Injuries and Fatalities Maintaining
Households With Internet Access Increasing
Change in Total Population Increasing
Change in Population by Age/Gender Not Applicable
People 65 or Older Living Alone Decreasing
People with Disabilities Increasing
Households by Type Not Applicable
Single-Parent Families by Gender Not Applicable
Single-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Change in Population by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Foreign-Born Population Increasing
Language Diversity Increasing
Change in Total Jobs Increasing
Change in Jobs by Sector Not Applicable
Change in Average Salary Increasing
Change in Average Salary by Sector Not Applicable
Average Salary by Sector Not Applicable
Median Earnings by Occupation by Gender Not Applicable
People Entering/Leaving County for Work Not Applicable
Employer Size Not Applicable
Self-Employment Revenue Maintaining
Unemployment Rate Increasing
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Prekindergarten Participation Not Applicable
Female Enrollment in School Not Applicable
Chronically Absent Students Increasing
Per-Student Spending Maintaining
Bullying Maintaining
Student Performance on Grade 3 Reading Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 8 Math by Student Group Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 10 English Language Arts Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 10 Math Not Applicable
High School Cohort Graduation Rate Increasing
High School Cohort Graduation Rate by Student Group Not Applicable
Education Levels of Adults Not Applicable
Bachelor's Degree or Higher by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Income in Relation to Poverty Level Not Applicable
People Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Median Household Income Maintaining
Median Household Income by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Median Household Income by Household Type Not Applicable
Living Wage Rate by Household Type Not Applicable
Households Receiving Temporary Assistance Maintaining
Households Receiving Federal Food Assistance Increasing
Participation in Food Assistance by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Earned Income Tax Credit Participation Maintaining
Economically Disadvantaged Students Increasing
Median Home Value Maintaining
Housing Affordability for Homeowners Increasing
Housing Affordability for Renters Increasing
Homeownership Rates Maintaining
Homeownership Rates by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Homeless Persons Increasing
People Without Health Insurance Decreasing
Medical Care Expenses Maintaining
Prevalence of Children with Asthma Maintaining
Prevalence of Overweight Children Decreasing
Prevalence of Overweight Adults Not Applicable
Diabetes Incidence Decreasing
Chronic Disease Among Older Adults Increasing
Cancer Incidence Decreasing
Cancer Mortality Rate Decreasing
Heart Disease Mortality Rate Decreasing
Mortality Rate Decreasing
People who Smoke Not Applicable
Use of Illegal Drugs Not Applicable
Youth Use of Illegal Drugs Not Applicable
Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions Not Applicable
Drug Overdose Mortality Rate Increasing
Prevalence of Mental Illness Maintaining
Suicide Rate Maintaining