Financial Self-Sufficiency
People by Income to Poverty Level, 2015-19


People by Income to Poverty Level, 2015-19

What does this measure?

The share of residents with incomes below the poverty level, and at various proportions of the poverty level (below half, double the poverty level, etc.). Poverty thresholds vary by family composition and year. In 2019, the threshold for a four-person family with two children was $25,926.

Why is this important?

The percentage of people living in or near poverty is a measure of the overall economic health of a region. It also indicates the level of need for social and government supports.

How is our county doing?

In 2015-19, 10% of residents had incomes below the poverty level, including 4% with incomes less than half of the poverty level. These individuals are considered to live in extreme poverty. Another 13% of county residents had incomes between 100% and 199% of the poverty level, 13% had incomes between 200% and 299% of poverty, and 64% had incomes above that level. This was essentially unchanged since 2010-14. That distribution of incomes was very similar to the state and better than the nation, where 13% of residents were below the poverty line, 17% between 100% and 199%, 16% between 200% and 299%, and 53% above that level.

The cities of Lawrence and Lynn had the highest percentages of residents living below the poverty level at 22% and 16%, respectively, including 8% and 7% of residents in extreme poverty. Since 2010-14, poverty decreased 7 percentage points in Lawrence and 5 points in Lynn.

How do we compare to similar counties?

Though Essex County had the highest percentage of residents with incomes under the poverty level in 2015-19, at 10%, the comparison counties were all very similar, with both Middlesex, MA and Lake, IL at 8%, and Westchester, NY at 9%. There were slightly higher proportions of residents at the upper end - at or above the 300% of poverty - in Middlesex (74%) and Westchester (69%), while Lake (66%) was fairly similar to Essex.

Notes about the data

The multiyear figures are from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey. The bureau combined 5 years of responses to the survey to provide estimates for smaller geographic areas and increase the precision of its estimates. However, because the information came from a survey, the samples responding to the survey were not always large enough to produce reliable results, especially in small geographic areas. CGR has noted on data tables the estimates with relatively large margins of error. Estimates with 3 asterisks have the largest margins, plus or minus 50% or more of the estimate. Two asterisks mean plus or minus 35%-50%, and one asterisk means plus or minus 20%-35%. For all estimates, the confidence level is 90%, meaning there is 90% probability the true value (if the whole population were surveyed) would be within the margin of error (or confidence interval). The survey provides data on characteristics of the population that used to be collected only during the decennial census. Data for this indicator are expected to be released annually in December.

People by Income to Poverty Level, 2015-19
Under 50%50% to 99%100% to 199%200% to 299%300% or Higher
Essex County, MA4%6%13%13%64%
Amesbury3%**3%**9%11%73%
Beverly4%**5%11%10%70%
Gloucester5%5%12%15%63%
Haverhill6%7%16%13%58%
Lawrence8%14%26%20%33%
Lynn7%9%21%19%44%
Methuen3%6%14%14%63%
Newburyport1%****5%****7%**6%**81%
Peabody3%**6%12%13%66%
Salem5%9%14%13%58%
Andover2%**2%**4%**6%86%
Boxford0%******0%******3%******4%****93%
Danvers4%**4%****8%12%73%
Essex4%******3%******10%****8%****76%
Georgetown1%******2%******6%****6%**85%
Groveland2%******1%******10%******7%**80%
Hamilton7%**5%****7%****9%**72%
Ipswich5%**2%****8%**9%**75%
Lynnfield1%******1%******6%**8%**84%
Manchester2%******2%******4%******8%****84%
Marblehead2%****2%****8%**8%79%
Merrimac2%******2%******8%****17%**71%
Middleton1%******2%******3%******11%**84%
Nahant1%******2%******13%****7%****78%
Newbury5%******4%******3%******11%****76%
North Andover3%**3%**6%**8%80%
Rockport4%****2%******8%**9%**76%
Rowley4%******1%******5%******9%**82%
Salisbury3%****3%****12%**13%**69%
Saugus3%**6%**8%10%72%
Swampscott1%******2%****5%**10%**82%
Topsfield0%******4%******5%******6%****85%
Wenham1%******1%******5%******10%****83%
West Newbury2%******2%******2%******9%**84%
Middlesex County, MA4%4%9%10%74%
Lake County, IL4%4%13%13%66%
Westchester County, NY4%5%11%10%69%
Massachusetts5%5%12%12%66%
United States6%7%17%16%53%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%.




Number of People by Income to Poverty Level, 2015-19
Under 50%50% to 99%100% to 199%200% to 299%300% or Higher
Essex County, MA33,48045,98398,68396,986492,040
Amesbury583**502**1,6161,95012,542
Beverly1,487**2,1114,1433,93726,879
Gloucester1,5661,4253,7164,39818,834
Haverhill3,5464,29010,1398,36936,316
Lawrence6,19110,62820,70715,49425,613
Lynn6,7718,74019,25717,30841,204
Methuen1,7062,9057,1166,74731,386
Newburyport210****849****1,333**1,046**14,391
Peabody1,520**2,9956,3256,88634,691
Salem2,2033,8905,9345,39424,091
Andover768**630**1,241**2,05429,733
Boxford18******0******235******344****7,685
Danvers957**966****2,0883,21819,887
Essex142******101******362****296****2,810
Georgetown127******146******511****514**7,387
Groveland116******73******655******492**5,444
Hamilton577**355****561****723**5,631
Ipswich708**346****1,141**1,282**10,413
Lynnfield182******81******773**1,057**10,761
Manchester92******83******230******442****4,534
Marblehead478****427****1,702**1,68016,096
Merrimac116******115******539****1,173**4,866
Middleton52******197******260******931**7,329
Nahant19******63******445****240****2,686
Newbury365******259******238******795****5,340
North Andover842**828**1,836**2,34123,751
Rockport313****170******587**665**5,430
Rowley223******51******326******538**5,147
Salisbury277****299****1,104**1,179**6,475
Saugus957**1,791**2,2582,82020,086
Swampscott214******248****719**1,487**12,174
Topsfield10******285******310******384****5,465
Wenham51******25******184******368****3,070
West Newbury93******109******92******434**3,893
Middlesex County, MA57,06657,876136,957151,6751,142,286
Lake County, IL24,83529,43887,24789,290453,297
Westchester County, NY40,57043,033107,75998,636655,747
Massachusetts321,641359,321796,026798,8774,339,510
United States18,957,46223,553,38155,237,14951,074,873167,892,186

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%.




People by Income to Poverty Level, 2010-14
Under 50%50% to 99%100% to 199%200% to 299%300% or Higher
Essex County, MA5%6%14%14%61%
Amesbury1%****3%**11%13%72%
Beverly5%**4%11%12%68%
Gloucester4%**6%16%16%59%
Haverhill6%6%17%16%55%
Lawrence11%18%28%17%26%
Lynn9%12%20%17%42%
Methuen4%**5%14%15%62%
Newburyport5%**3%****9%7%**77%
Peabody3%**5%12%15%65%
Salem7%8%17%15%53%
Andover2%****3%**6%7%83%
Boxford0%******3%******3%******7%**87%
Danvers3%****2%**8%16%70%
Essex2%******2%******11%****8%****77%
Georgetown1%******2%******3%****10%84%
Groveland2%******1%******9%****21%**68%
Hamilton2%******1%******7%**9%**80%
Ipswich2%****4%****11%12%71%
Lynnfield1%******1%******4%****8%**86%
Manchester3%******3%******7%******15%**72%
Marblehead1%****3%**5%**8%82%
Merrimac2%******3%******16%**15%**64%
Middleton3%******2%******9%****10%****77%
Nahant3%******2%******11%****13%**71%
Newbury1%******4%******6%****12%**76%
North Andover2%****2%**6%**11%79%
Rockport3%****3%****17%**10%**68%
Rowley3%******6%******6%****12%**74%
Salisbury4%****4%**14%**15%**63%
Saugus2%****4%**9%12%73%
Swampscott3%****2%******7%**6%**83%
Topsfield1%******5%******3%******5%****87%
Wenham2%******1%******7%******8%**82%
West Newbury6%****2%******2%******11%**78%
Middlesex County, MA4%4%11%11%69%
Lake County, IL4%5%15%13%63%
Westchester County, NY4%5%12%11%67%
Massachusetts5%6%13%13%62%
United States7%9%19%17%49%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%.




Number of People by Income to Poverty Level, 2010-14
Under 50%50% to 99%100% to 199%200% to 299%300% or Higher
Essex County, MA35,54547,971102,117101,728453,963
Amesbury233****461**1,7592,05011,826
Beverly1,712**1,4974,1094,64425,514
Gloucester1,050**1,7754,5804,59416,999
Haverhill3,6733,68810,3489,60233,238
Lawrence8,12013,68721,74713,31019,719
Lynn8,33210,60417,95915,75137,964
Methuen1,799**2,5456,5437,35629,562
Newburyport815**475****1,5551,200**13,305
Peabody1,480**2,4986,3817,77733,284
Salem2,6893,1596,8536,24621,535
Andover600****859**1,9422,27627,534
Boxford12******215******237******564**7,077
Danvers741****569**2,2354,32018,608
Essex72******62******403****277****2,766
Georgetown79******142******286****8407,032
Groveland107******74******599****1,424**4,601
Hamilton145******108******584**708**6,299
Ipswich276****504****1,4181,6209,561
Lynnfield91******78******539****969**10,380
Manchester164******179******368******773**3,743
Marblehead294****687**1,006**1,54416,516
Merrimac130******176******1,029**987**4,193
Middleton197******161******673****754****5,830
Nahant89******81******364****437**2,428
Newbury60******271******438****836**5,172
North Andover588****694**1,577**3,01322,046
Rockport205****176****1,196**673**4,759
Rowley187******342******327****681**4,369
Salisbury345****354**1,163**1,259**5,320
Saugus501****1,126**2,4313,38019,729
Swampscott362****291******925**788**11,391
Topsfield43******283******215******289****5,338
Wenham83******50******236******288**2,916
West Newbury271****100******92******498**3,409
Middlesex County, MA58,58766,226161,138170,1151,028,413
Lake County, IL28,59835,834100,98490,710429,425
Westchester County, NY38,76151,052115,999105,767626,775
Massachusetts340,361402,423863,909866,3913,951,604
United States21,117,98526,637,62158,017,80151,057,255149,395,732

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%.




INDICATORS TREND | ESSEX COUNTY
Prevalence of Overweight Adults Not Applicable
Early Prenatal Care by Mother's Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Preterm Births Increasing
Infant Mortality Rate Maintaining
Children with Elevated Blood Lead Levels Decreasing
Children Living in Poverty Increasing
Children Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Child Abuse and Neglect Increasing
Disengaged Youth Maintaining
Live Births to Teen Mothers Decreasing
Youth Arrests Decreasing
Arts, Entertainment and Recreation Establishments Increasing
Arts, Entertainment and Recreation Employment Maintaining
Tourism Spending Increasing
Voter Participation Rate Decreasing
Charitable Contributions Maintaining
Protected Land Not Applicable
Days with Good Air Quality Increasing
Beach Contamination Increasing
Daily Water Use per Resident Decreasing
Crimes Against People Decreasing
Crimes Against Property Decreasing
Drug-Related Arrests Maintaining
Reports of Domestic Violence Increasing
Incarceration Rates Decreasing
Recidivism Decreasing
Households Without Vehicles Maintaining
Means of Transportation to Work Not Applicable
Traffic Injuries and Fatalities Maintaining
Households With Internet Access Not Applicable
Change in Total Population Increasing
Change in Population by Age/Gender Not Applicable
People 65 or Older Living Alone Decreasing
People with Disabilities Maintaining
Households by Type Not Applicable
Single-Parent Families by Gender Not Applicable
Single-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Change in Population by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Foreign-Born Population Increasing
Language Diversity Increasing
Change in Total Jobs Increasing
Change in Jobs by Sector Not Applicable
Change in Average Salary Increasing
Change in Average Salary by Sector Not Applicable
Average Salary by Sector Not Applicable
Median Earnings by Occupation by Gender Not Applicable
People Entering/Leaving County for Work Not Applicable
Employer Size Not Applicable
Self-Employment Revenue Increasing
Unemployment Rate Maintaining
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Prekindergarten Participation Not Applicable
Female Enrollment in School Not Applicable
Chronically Absent Students Increasing
Per-Student Spending Increasing
Bullying Decreasing
Student Performance on Grade 3 Reading Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 8 Math by Student Group Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 10 English Language Arts Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 10 Math Not Applicable
High School Cohort Graduation Rate Increasing
High School Cohort Graduation Rate by Student Group Not Applicable
Education Levels of Adults Not Applicable
Bachelor's Degree or Higher by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Income in Relation to Poverty Level Not Applicable
People Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Median Household Income Maintaining
Median Household Income by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Median Household Income by Household Type Not Applicable
Living Wage Rate by Household Type Not Applicable
Households Receiving Temporary Assistance Maintaining
Households Receiving Federal Food Assistance Decreasing
Participation in Food Assistance by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Earned Income Tax Credit Participation Decreasing
Economically Disadvantaged Students Increasing
Median Home Value Increasing
Housing Affordability for Homeowners Increasing
Housing Affordability for Renters Increasing
Homeownership Rates Maintaining
Homeownership Rates by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Homeless Persons Increasing
People Without Health Insurance Decreasing
Medical Care Expenses Increasing
Prevalence of Children with Asthma Maintaining
Prevalence of Overweight Children Maintaining
Diabetes Incidence Decreasing
Chronic Disease Among Older Adults Increasing
Cancer Incidence Decreasing
Cancer Mortality Rate Decreasing
Heart Disease Mortality Rate Decreasing
Mortality Rate Decreasing
People who Smoke Not Applicable
Use of Illegal Drugs Not Applicable
Youth Use of Illegal Drugs Not Applicable
Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions Not Applicable
Drug Overdose Mortality Rate Increasing
Prevalence of Mental Illness Maintaining
Suicide Rate Maintaining
Children Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Single-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Change in Population by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 3 Reading Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 8 Math by Student Group Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 10 English Language Arts Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 10 Math Not Applicable
High School Cohort Graduation Rate by Student Group Not Applicable
Bachelor's Degree or Higher by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
People Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Median Household Income by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Participation in Food Assistance by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Homeownership Rates by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable