Economy And Workforce
Female to Male Earnings Ratio, by Occupation Type, 2013-17


Female to Male Earnings Ratio, by Occupation Type, 2013-17

What does this measure?

The ratio of female to male median earnings for various occupations.

Why is this important?

The pay equity gap is hotly debated. While the data clearly shows that women generally earn less than men for similar occupations, there can be many factors contributing to this, including choices about when and how much to work, and what types of occupations men and women gravitate toward.

How is our county doing?

In 2013-17, median earnings for men in Essex County were roughly $62,200, while median earnings for women were around $50,600. In other words, at the median, women earned 80% of men's earnings (or roughly $0.80 for every $1 earned by men). This disparity was similar to the national level and slightly larger than at the state level, where women earned $0.82 for every dollar earned by men.

Differences in pay by gender were larger for some occupations in Essex County. In Production, Transportation and Material Moving occupations, women earned $0.69 to every dollar earned by men. In Healthcare Practitioner and Technical occupations and in the Management, Business and Financial sector, the ratio was $0.70, while in Service occupations, it was $0.74. Men and women's earnings were closer in Computer, Engineering and Science ($0.83). In Natural Resources, Construction and Maintenance occupations, women's earnings outpaced those of men at $1.16 to every dollar.

How do we compare to similar counties?

Middlesex, MA had the same overall ratio as Essex County, at $0.80. Westchester was similar, at $0.79. Women in Lake, IL had a greater disparity, earning $0.76 of every dollar earned by men across all occupations.

Similar to Essex, in Middlesex County, women's median earnings were actually a bit higher than men's in the Natural Resources, Construction and Maintenance occupations. In contrast, Lake County, IL had the biggest gap in those occupations, with women only earning 56% of men's earnings.

Notes about the data

This data does not separate about full and part-time earners or those who are self-employed.

The multiyear figures are from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey. The bureau combined 5 years of responses to the survey to provide estimates for smaller geographic areas and increase the precision of its estimates. However, because the information came from a survey, the samples responding to the survey were not always large enough to produce reliable results, especially in small geographic areas. CGR has noted on data tables the estimates with relatively large margins of error. Estimates with 3 asterisks have the largest margins, plus or minus 50% or more of the estimate. Two asterisks mean plus or minus 35%-50%, and one asterisk means plus or minus 20%-35%. For all estimates, the confidence level is 90%, meaning there is 90% probability the true value (if the whole population were surveyed) would be within the margin of error (or confidence interval). The survey provides data on characteristics of the population that used to be collected only during the decennial census. Data for this indicator are released annually in December.

Female to Male Earnings Ratio, by Occupation Type, 2013-17
All OccupationsComputer, Engineering and ScienceEducation, Legal, Community Service, Arts and MediaHealthcare Practitioners and TechnicalManagement, Business and FinancialNatural Resources, Construction and MaintenanceProduction, Transportation and Material MovingSales and OfficeService
Essex County, MA80%83%78%70%70%116%****69%78%74%
Amesbury90%73%123%92%70%0%******87%****83%61%******
Beverly72%99%104%**53%**71%0%******40%****88%52%**
Gloucester88%145%75%61%75%**0%******53%******83%86%**
Haverhill72%79%**70%104%82%83%****74%81%71%
Lawrence92%98%**115%86%**75%0%******73%110%89%
Lynn86%96%66%152%100%56%******63%84%92%
Methuen82%92%101%77%85%73%******89%83%51%**
Newburyport74%72%******86%85%****66%**0%******0%******79%34%****
Peabody79%68%****119%**121%77%0%******68%**73%80%
Salem87%69%90%126%**92%121%****81%****79%88%
Andover65%79%79%33%**63%0%******56%58%37%
Boxford72%102%36%******N/A**74%******0%******0%******39%******125%**
Danvers84%117%**87%91%**76%0%******73%****66%79%**
Essex69%0%******120%****N/A******52%******0%******N/A******37%******231%**
Georgetown73%74%****81%N/A94%**0%******0%******79%**32%******
Groveland94%51%******143%**N/A******58%**0%******0%******69%**43%******
Hamilton59%64%**60%36%******83%0%******0%******41%****54%****
Ipswich78%92%******77%****84%**71%0%******75%******81%68%**
Lynnfield71%73%******72%**76%76%0%******0%******69%60%
Manchester76%**86%******25%******94%******44%******0%******0%******130%******0%******
Marblehead62%61%******62%60%**71%0%******48%48%88%****
Merrimac77%86%**163%N/A61%0%******0%******53%**45%
Middleton71%**0%******65%****24%******67%0%******39%******55%**37%******
Nahant65%0%******91%******81%******47%******0%******0%******36%******28%******
Newbury81%0%******128%****N/A******81%0%******0%******72%0%******
North Andover70%63%**95%45%**72%0%******94%****51%55%**
Rockport83%0%******67%32%****70%**0%******84%****84%74%****
Rowley54%0%******27%******69%70%**0%******0%******51%26%******
Salisbury83%0%******58%****N/A****98%0%******92%**72%**75%**
Saugus81%80%**67%**87%**60%0%******57%**98%69%**
Swampscott74%103%77%**55%******70%0%******63%63%42%******
Topsfield42%******0%******73%0%******50%****N/A******N/A******45%31%******
Wenham66%0%******63%****N/A******78%0%******0%******35%**N/A******
West Newbury67%52%**37%**72%******93%******0%******0%******65%****0%******
Middlesex County, MA80%84%79%75%75%118%**77%79%74%
Lake County, IL76%87%68%56%70%56%64%74%81%
Westchester County, NY79%83%69%66%71%88%**66%71%71%
Massachusetts82%85%82%80%74%95%70%77%74%
United States80%84%79%72%75%75%69%76%77%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%.




Median Earnings for Females, by Occupation Type, 2013-17
All OccupationsComputer, Engineering and ScienceEducation, Legal, Community Service, Arts and MediaHealthcare Practitioners and TechnicalManagement, Business and FinancialNatural Resources, Construction and MaintenanceProduction, Transportation and Material MovingSales and OfficeService
Essex County, MA$50,565$82,751$54,479$72,722$72,701$60,417****$29,588$43,938$30,115
Amesbury$58,911$62,348$60,417$62,212$75,750$0******$34,500****$50,482$25,030******
Beverly$53,454$95,417$56,591**$61,848**$74,931$0******$25,417****$47,593$26,941**
Gloucester$50,112$95,000$46,705$63,083$78,958**$0******$26,739******$42,660$35,074**
Haverhill$44,329$72,798**$49,375$64,353$66,543$50,439****$34,355$42,247$30,921
Lawrence$30,967$64,545**$37,006$49,856**$48,452$0******$22,601$37,931$26,976
Lynn$38,243$69,375$40,671$69,681$64,344$26,667******$26,115$36,511$30,340
Methuen$46,407$83,549$47,316$72,606$59,879$41,654******$37,850$42,007$25,337**
Newburyport$64,869$70,625******$59,698$91,087****$74,556**$0******$0******$60,714$25,000****
Peabody$46,312$63,523****$61,574**$71,660$64,018$0******$32,188**$39,502$33,200
Salem$51,607$69,430$52,901$80,750**$64,136$61,105****$34,083****$41,851$31,769
Andover$80,398$105,116$71,120$83,519**$99,258$0******$34,688$52,174$35,809
Boxford$83,929$106,156$52,232******$138,344**$115,469******$0******$0******$47,287******$85,192**
Danvers$55,206$100,577**$55,117$74,821**$71,842$0******$38,558****$41,783$31,979**
Essex$58,182$0******$60,375****$0******$62,278******$0******$0******$43,214******$50,652**
Georgetown$68,634$81,923****$70,444$74,200$103,250**$0******$0******$56,438**$16,646******
Groveland$59,395$61,563******$66,250**$104,457******$60,972**$0******$0******$42,143**$23,650******
Hamilton$61,847$89,464**$56,250$87,321******$105,991$0******$0******$37,019****$44,205****
Ipswich$56,901$86,528******$61,528****$64,583**$89,483$0******$37,847******$49,274$37,396**
Lynnfield$71,726$69,000******$69,375**$105,730$88,162$0******$0******$58,750$50,682
Manchester$63,958**$80,217******$43,750******$91,750******$63,947******$0******$0******$65,417******$0******
Marblehead$72,418$74,432******$62,443$88,583**$103,235$0******$31,765$60,304$31,989****
Merrimac$66,559$103,971**$65,893$76,791$78,351$0******$0******$45,859**$27,098
Middleton$73,153**$0******$70,865****$61,058******$84,623$0******$16,282******$39,848**$40,089******
Nahant$59,167$0******$65,568******$105,341******$57,404******$0******$0******$44,674******$24,583******
Newbury$63,360$0******$72,596****$0******$79,000$0******$0******$55,758$0******
North Andover$68,819$71,667**$63,458$94,444**$89,196$0******$48,015****$44,385$29,688**
Rockport$53,462$0******$57,500$81,071****$51,538**$0******$38,636****$45,701$34,792****
Rowley$50,764$0******$42,305******$93,867$74,388**$0******$0******$48,443$14,523******
Salisbury$46,016$0******$42,117****$51,944****$69,489$0******$41,985**$42,083**$34,625**
Saugus$53,398$69,250**$55,962**$77,778**$59,167$0******$33,952**$51,595$30,577**
Swampscott$63,806$96,481$62,841**$67,679******$81,932$0******$36,875$51,307$29,625******
Topsfield$44,931******$0******$68,295$0******$76,985****$0******$0******$37,971$36,944******
Wenham$70,516$0******$64,167****$49,833******$104,875$0******$0******$53,309**$11,389******
West Newbury$65,000$64,500**$69,583**$74,886******$118,977******$0******$0******$52,788****$0******
Middlesex County, MA$60,322$85,648$59,843$79,255$79,379$63,063**$34,092$48,143$30,764
Lake County, IL$49,596$82,414$53,849$70,830$77,849$28,667$24,115$41,610$26,272
Westchester County, NY$59,529$87,719$69,196$82,630$90,593$44,191**$28,548$47,050$28,631
Massachusetts$52,382$80,307$57,180$73,003$72,358$49,577$31,474$43,822$30,598
United States$40,824$70,177$47,567$59,241$60,584$31,600$27,970$35,443$24,835

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Figures in 2016 dollars. Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%.




Female to Male Earnings Ratio, by Occupation Type, 2008-12
All OccupationsComputer, Engineering and ScienceEducation, Legal, Community Service, Arts and MediaHealthcare Practitioners and TechnicalManagement, Business and FinancialNatural Resources, Construction and MaintenanceProduction, Transportation and Material MovingSales and OfficeService
Essex County, MA76%84%81%69%66%72%**65%76%69%
Amesbury76%107%84%106%**81%0%******67%****82%68%**
Beverly78%97%70%60%67%43%77%**75%78%
Gloucester74%67%******65%**140%****80%41%******80%******69%62%
Haverhill80%94%89%89%62%86%**65%76%69%
Lawrence77%70%******94%**125%**88%93%******72%76%87%
Lynn85%102%****92%99%82%67%******59%80%76%
Methuen83%72%**77%**64%75%103%****82%81%66%**
Newburyport76%85%******93%64%**67%**0%******68%******67%**50%******
Peabody80%73%**91%96%68%137%77%76%75%
Salem86%94%**95%143%70%0%******70%****92%82%**
Andover66%75%76%58%**63%0%******59%******62%50%**
Boxford65%**96%**54%40%******52%******64%******0%******64%******36%******
Danvers83%84%**113%**75%66%0%******58%80%80%**
Essex62%32%******85%******N/A******42%******0%******0%******65%****110%******
Georgetown83%92%******51%**35%**87%**0%******0%******87%60%****
Groveland82%**0%******106%******N/A******77%******0%******84%****105%**64%
Hamilton72%116%****87%**78%******80%****0%******29%****48%******53%******
Ipswich74%114%**91%53%******70%****0%******43%******53%**57%******
Lynnfield68%77%**58%18%******75%**0%******82%******76%73%******
Manchester64%**0%******80%28%******68%**0%******0%******55%******N/A******
Marblehead64%72%56%**29%**68%0%******124%77%**59%
Merrimac87%0%******75%55%58%**0%******33%******86%**41%**
Middleton81%103%******175%**39%******90%****0%******77%******93%33%****
Nahant79%**148%******70%**N/A**81%0%******0%******67%40%******
Newbury52%****136%******105%38%****58%******0%******0%******71%25%
North Andover66%86%85%46%**61%68%******90%******74%79%
Rockport84%256%****47%**71%******59%******0%******0%******93%86%
Rowley62%60%58%******108%**58%****0%******112%54%54%******
Salisbury76%70%******99%N/A******74%0%******56%86%67%**
Saugus83%104%******78%128%**81%127%******36%****93%69%**
Swampscott64%85%******64%61%****67%**0%******0%******49%104%
Topsfield64%92%53%**25%69%******0%******0%******58%**0%******
Wenham46%****0%******57%****49%******47%**0%******0%******93%******29%**
West Newbury56%**89%******88%66%******63%0%******0%******38%******55%******
Middlesex County, MA78%80%81%72%71%91%74%79%73%
Lake County, IL71%89%63%54%69%82%**61%72%78%
Westchester County, NY79%84%65%59%72%136%**67%73%78%
Massachusetts79%81%82%75%71%89%70%76%72%
United States77%84%79%69%72%79%69%74%73%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%.




Median Earnings for Females, by Occupation Type, 2008-12
All OccupationsComputer, Engineering and ScienceEducation, Legal, Community Service, Arts and MediaHealthcare Practitioners and TechnicalManagement, Business and FinancialNatural Resources, Construction and MaintenanceProduction, Transportation and Material MovingSales and OfficeService
Essex County, MA$49,494$82,987$57,798$72,883$68,222$39,423**$30,166$43,818$29,412
Amesbury$53,539$108,847$49,395$73,118**$74,478$0******$35,810****$45,032$30,004**
Beverly$51,850$97,393$48,367$74,348$63,766$24,327$35,778**$43,794$36,909
Gloucester$45,202$64,249******$45,033**$65,106****$82,444$23,354******$43,467******$41,399$33,301
Haverhill$47,840$74,813$59,075$67,021$56,809$43,658**$33,540$42,569$28,295
Lawrence$30,991$49,782******$41,259**$77,896**$56,431$38,129******$25,327$29,451$27,418
Lynn$39,709$70,158****$55,231$65,745$54,584$31,063******$26,785$39,438$27,342
Methuen$47,977$67,240**$58,579**$62,478$62,105$58,497****$35,558$41,047$30,561**
Newburyport$67,042$93,448******$68,609$75,496**$82,270**$0******$31,838******$47,483**$40,294******
Peabody$48,212$73,399**$55,884$68,199$61,515$79,321$36,382$44,085$32,654
Salem$48,970$80,318**$54,494$88,124$58,084$0******$33,363****$44,416$28,716**
Andover$76,102$91,503$69,129$84,965**$91,688$0******$31,902******$55,444$33,277**
Boxford$72,472**$112,522**$73,770$77,653******$67,197******$36,366******$0******$59,698******$26,779******
Danvers$58,037$83,503**$61,938**$85,168$65,297$0******$35,507$46,133$36,211**
Essex$47,889$34,240******$49,600******$65,392******$42,705******$0******$0******$44,780****$26,230******
Georgetown$65,295$87,560******$47,288**$78,584**$95,086**$0******$0******$57,635$34,786****
Groveland$60,321**$0******$54,182******$71,244******$79,130******$0******$49,480****$64,279**$28,547
Hamilton$71,598$136,429****$69,040**$109,010******$96,869****$0******$27,083****$54,822******$36,477******
Ipswich$61,770$115,923**$67,567$60,540******$77,498****$0******$26,824******$44,404**$28,587******
Lynnfield$58,968$86,268**$68,061$46,830******$91,991**$0******$40,642******$43,594$43,743******
Manchester$72,662**$0******$65,768$74,215******$102,368**$0******$0******$62,791******$0******
Marblehead$68,886$78,826$58,052**$78,178**$95,234$0******$45,866$69,534**$33,606
Merrimac$60,471$0******$65,392$66,838$68,442**$0******$18,056******$52,126**$23,266**
Middleton$55,783$81,406******$66,099**$104,093******$90,998****$0******$42,038******$52,006$20,018****
Nahant$65,267**$166,352******$82,074**$140,259**$91,457$0******$0******$42,624$23,322******
Newbury$47,567****$154,894******$67,291$76,354****$80,558******$0******$0******$33,242$22,587
North Andover$64,686$97,934$67,543$80,847**$82,408$42,133******$46,811******$58,881$29,529
Rockport$57,220$142,795****$51,093**$63,819******$82,519******$0******$0******$50,913$39,122
Rowley$48,649$62,151$42,737******$104,427**$67,359****$0******$36,032$42,378$23,951******
Salisbury$49,669$57,251******$73,900$72,399******$61,982$0******$35,899$42,185$28,159**
Saugus$55,463$93,477******$60,676$71,302**$64,383$83,152******$20,066****$54,757$36,566**
Swampscott$59,032$79,627******$57,473$83,605****$76,068**$0******$0******$47,376$38,749
Topsfield$68,491$123,383$60,832**$66,931$81,258******$0******$0******$52,428**$0******
Wenham$52,598****$0******$66,578****$53,349******$103,760**$0******$0******$52,047******$32,563**
West Newbury$63,612**$115,771******$67,728$74,543******$109,098$0******$0******$34,031******$47,133******
Middlesex County, MA$57,030$81,154$59,520$76,324$76,182$50,162$34,063$46,839$31,458
Lake County, IL$50,106$85,596$54,690$73,542$78,087$44,802**$25,533$42,068$26,204
Westchester County, NY$58,561$84,462$68,379$85,953$91,029$67,856**$29,518$49,669$31,308
Massachusetts$50,948$75,342$56,543$72,191$68,822$48,378$32,123$43,699$30,998
United States$40,504$69,057$48,472$59,744$58,683$34,507$28,282$35,456$24,807

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Figures in 2016 dollars. Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%.




INDICATORS TREND | ESSEX COUNTY
Early Prenatal Care by Mother's Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Preterm Births Increasing
Infant Mortality Rate Maintaining
Children with Elevated Blood Lead Levels Decreasing
Children Living in Poverty Increasing
Children Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Child Abuse and Neglect Increasing
Disengaged Youth Decreasing
Live Births to Teen Mothers Decreasing
Youth Arrests Decreasing
Arts, Entertainment and Recreation Establishments Maintaining
Arts, Entertainment and Recreation Employment Maintaining
Tourism Spending Maintaining
Voter Participation Rate Increasing
Charitable Contributions Maintaining
Protected Land Not Applicable
Days with Good Air Quality Increasing
Beach Contamination Decreasing
Daily Water Use per Resident Decreasing
Crimes Against People Increasing
Crimes Against Property Increasing
Drug-Related Arrests Maintaining
Reports of Domestic Violence Increasing
Incarceration Rates Decreasing
Recidivism Decreasing
Households Without Vehicles Maintaining
Means of Transportation to Work Not Applicable
Traffic Injuries and Fatalities Maintaining
Households With Internet Access Increasing
Change in Total Population Increasing
Change in Population by Age/Gender Not Applicable
People 65 or Older Living Alone Decreasing
People with Disabilities Increasing
Households by Type Not Applicable
Single-Parent Families by Gender Not Applicable
Single-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Change in Population by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Foreign-Born Population Increasing
Language Diversity Increasing
Change in Total Jobs Increasing
Change in Jobs by Sector Not Applicable
Change in Average Salary Increasing
Change in Average Salary by Sector Not Applicable
Average Salary by Sector Not Applicable
Median Earnings by Occupation by Gender Not Applicable
People Entering/Leaving County for Work Not Applicable
Employer Size Not Applicable
Self-Employment Revenue Maintaining
Unemployment Rate Increasing
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Prekindergarten Participation Not Applicable
Female Enrollment in School Not Applicable
Chronically Absent Students Increasing
Per-Student Spending Maintaining
Bullying Maintaining
Student Performance on Grade 3 Reading Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 8 Math by Student Group Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 10 English Language Arts Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 10 Math Not Applicable
High School Cohort Graduation Rate Increasing
High School Cohort Graduation Rate by Student Group Not Applicable
Education Levels of Adults Not Applicable
Bachelor's Degree or Higher by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Income in Relation to Poverty Level Not Applicable
People Living in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Median Household Income Maintaining
Median Household Income by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Median Household Income by Household Type Not Applicable
Living Wage Rate by Household Type Not Applicable
Households Receiving Temporary Assistance Maintaining
Households Receiving Federal Food Assistance Increasing
Participation in Food Assistance by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Earned Income Tax Credit Participation Maintaining
Economically Disadvantaged Students Increasing
Median Home Value Maintaining
Housing Affordability for Homeowners Increasing
Housing Affordability for Renters Increasing
Homeownership Rates Maintaining
Homeownership Rates by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Homeless Persons Increasing
People Without Health Insurance Decreasing
Medical Care Expenses Maintaining
Prevalence of Children with Asthma Maintaining
Prevalence of Overweight Children Decreasing
Prevalence of Overweight Adults Not Applicable
Diabetes Incidence Decreasing
Chronic Disease Among Older Adults Increasing
Cancer Incidence Decreasing
Cancer Mortality Rate Decreasing
Heart Disease Mortality Rate Decreasing
Mortality Rate Decreasing
People who Smoke Not Applicable
Use of Illegal Drugs Not Applicable
Youth Use of Illegal Drugs Not Applicable
Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions Not Applicable
Drug Overdose Mortality Rate Increasing
Prevalence of Mental Illness Maintaining
Suicide Rate Maintaining