Economy And Workforce
Female to Male Earnings Ratio, by Occupation Type, 2013-17


Female to Male Earnings Ratio, by Occupation Type, 2013-17

What does this measure?

The ratio of female to male median earnings for various occupations.

Why is this important?

The pay equity gap is hotly debated. While the data clearly shows that women generally earn less than men for similar occupations, there can be many factors contributing to this, including choices about when and how much to work, and what types of occupations men and women gravitate toward.

How is our county doing?

In 2013-17, median earnings for men in Essex County were roughly $62,200, while median earnings for women were around $50,600. In other words, at the median, women earned 80% of men's earnings (or roughly $0.80 for every $1 earned by men). This disparity was similar to the national level and slightly larger than at the state level, where women earned $0.82 for every dollar earned by men.

Differences in pay by gender were larger for some occupations in Essex County. In Production, Transportation and Material Moving occupations, women earned $0.69 to every dollar earned by men. In Healthcare Practitioner and Technical occupations and in the Management, Business and Financial sector, the ratio was $0.70, while in Service occupations, it was $0.74. Men and women's earnings were closer in Computer, Engineering and Science ($0.83). In Natural Resources, Construction and Maintenance occupations, women's earnings outpaced those of men at $1.16 to every dollar.

How do we compare to similar counties?

Middlesex, MA had the same overall ratio as Essex County, at $0.80. Westchester was similar, at $0.79. Women in Lake, IL had a greater disparity, earning $0.76 of every dollar earned by men across all occupations.

Similar to Essex, in Middlesex County, women's median earnings were actually a bit higher than men's in the Natural Resources, Construction and Maintenance occupations. In contrast, Lake County, IL had the biggest gap in those occupations, with women only earning 56% of men's earnings.

Notes about the data

This data does not separate about full and part-time earners or those who are self-employed.

The multiyear figures are from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey. The bureau combined 5 years of responses to the survey to provide estimates for smaller geographic areas and increase the precision of its estimates. However, because the information came from a survey, the samples responding to the survey were not always large enough to produce reliable results, especially in small geographic areas. CGR has noted on data tables the estimates with relatively large margins of error. Estimates with 3 asterisks have the largest margins, plus or minus 50% or more of the estimate. Two asterisks mean plus or minus 35%-50%, and one asterisk means plus or minus 20%-35%. For all estimates, the confidence level is 90%, meaning there is 90% probability the true value (if the whole population were surveyed) would be within the margin of error (or confidence interval). The survey provides data on characteristics of the population that used to be collected only during the decennial census. Data for this indicator are released annually in December.

Female to Male Earnings Ratio, by Occupation Type, 2013-17
All OccupationsComputer, Engineering and ScienceEducation, Legal, Community Service, Arts and MediaHealthcare Practitioners and TechnicalManagement, Business and FinancialNatural Resources, Construction and MaintenanceProduction, Transportation and Material MovingSales and OfficeService
Essex County, MA80%83%78%70%70%116%****69%78%74%
Amesbury90%73%123%92%70%0%******87%****83%61%******
Beverly72%99%104%**53%**71%0%******40%****88%52%**
Gloucester88%145%75%61%75%**0%******53%******83%86%**
Haverhill72%79%**70%104%82%83%****74%81%71%
Lawrence92%98%**115%86%**75%0%******73%110%89%
Lynn86%96%66%152%100%56%******63%84%92%
Methuen82%92%101%77%85%73%******89%83%51%**
Newburyport74%72%******86%85%****66%**0%******0%******79%34%****
Peabody79%68%****119%**121%77%0%******68%**73%80%
Salem87%69%90%126%**92%121%****81%****79%88%
Andover65%79%79%33%**63%0%******56%58%37%
Boxford72%102%36%******N/A**74%******0%******0%******39%******125%**
Danvers84%117%**87%91%**76%0%******73%****66%79%**
Essex69%0%******120%****N/A******52%******0%******N/A******37%******231%**
Georgetown73%74%****81%N/A94%**0%******0%******79%**32%******
Groveland94%51%******143%**N/A******58%**0%******0%******69%**43%******
Hamilton59%64%**60%36%******83%0%******0%******41%****54%****
Ipswich78%92%******77%****84%**71%0%******75%******81%68%**
Lynnfield71%73%******72%**76%76%0%******0%******69%60%
Manchester76%**86%******25%******94%******44%******0%******0%******130%******0%******
Marblehead62%61%******62%60%**71%0%******48%48%88%****
Merrimac77%86%**163%N/A61%0%******0%******53%**45%
Middleton71%**0%******65%****24%******67%0%******39%******55%**37%******
Nahant65%0%******91%******81%******47%******0%******0%******36%******28%******
Newbury81%0%******128%****N/A******81%0%******0%******72%0%******
North Andover70%63%**95%45%**72%0%******94%****51%55%**
Rockport83%0%******67%32%****70%**0%******84%****84%74%****
Rowley54%0%******27%******69%70%**0%******0%******51%26%******
Salisbury83%0%******58%****N/A****98%0%******92%**72%**75%**
Saugus81%80%**67%**87%**60%0%******57%**98%69%**
Swampscott74%103%77%**55%******70%0%******63%63%42%******
Topsfield42%******0%******73%0%******50%****N/A******N/A******45%31%******
Wenham66%0%******63%****N/A******78%0%******0%******35%**N/A******
West Newbury67%52%**37%**72%******93%******0%******0%******65%****0%******
Middlesex County, MA80%84%79%75%75%118%**77%79%74%
Lake County, IL76%87%68%56%70%56%64%74%81%
Westchester County, NY79%83%69%66%71%88%**66%71%71%
Massachusetts82%85%82%80%74%95%70%77%74%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%.




Median Earnings for Females, by Occupation Type, 2013-17
All OccupationsComputer, Engineering and ScienceEducation, Legal, Community Service, Arts and MediaHealthcare Practitioners and TechnicalManagement, Business and FinancialNatural Resources, Construction and MaintenanceProduction, Transportation and Material MovingSales and OfficeService
Essex County, MA$50,565$82,751$54,479$72,722$72,701$60,417****$29,588$43,938$30,115
Amesbury$58,911$62,348$60,417$62,212$75,750$0******$34,500****$50,482$25,030******
Beverly$53,454$95,417$56,591**$61,848**$74,931$0******$25,417****$47,593$26,941**
Gloucester$50,112$95,000$46,705$63,083$78,958**$0******$26,739******$42,660$35,074**
Haverhill$44,329$72,798**$49,375$64,353$66,543$50,439****$34,355$42,247$30,921
Lawrence$30,967$64,545**$37,006$49,856**$48,452$0******$22,601$37,931$26,976
Lynn$38,243$69,375$40,671$69,681$64,344$26,667******$26,115$36,511$30,340
Methuen$46,407$83,549$47,316$72,606$59,879$41,654******$37,850$42,007$25,337**
Newburyport$64,869$70,625******$59,698$91,087****$74,556**$0******$0******$60,714$25,000****
Peabody$46,312$63,523****$61,574**$71,660$64,018$0******$32,188**$39,502$33,200
Salem$51,607$69,430$52,901$80,750**$64,136$61,105****$34,083****$41,851$31,769
Andover$80,398$105,116$71,120$83,519**$99,258$0******$34,688$52,174$35,809
Boxford$83,929$106,156$52,232******$138,344**$115,469******$0******$0******$47,287******$85,192**
Danvers$55,206$100,577**$55,117$74,821**$71,842$0******$38,558****$41,783$31,979**
Essex$58,182$0******$60,375****$0******$62,278******$0******$0******$43,214******$50,652**
Georgetown$68,634$81,923****$70,444$74,200$103,250**$0******$0******$56,438**$16,646******
Groveland$59,395$61,563******$66,250**$104,457******$60,972**$0******$0******$42,143**$23,650******
Hamilton$61,847$89,464**$56,250$87,321******$105,991$0******$0******$37,019****$44,205****
Ipswich$56,901$86,528******$61,528****$64,583**$89,483$0******$37,847******$49,274$37,396**
Lynnfield$71,726$69,000******$69,375**$105,730$88,162$0******$0******$58,750$50,682
Manchester$63,958**$80,217******$43,750******$91,750******$63,947******$0******$0******$65,417******$0******
Marblehead$72,418$74,432******$62,443$88,583**$103,235$0******$31,765$60,304$31,989****
Merrimac$66,559$103,971**$65,893$76,791$78,351$0******$0******$45,859**$27,098
Middleton$73,153**$0******$70,865****$61,058******$84,623$0******$16,282******$39,848**$40,089******
Nahant$59,167$0******$65,568******$105,341******$57,404******$0******$0******$44,674******$24,583******
Newbury$63,360$0******$72,596****$0******$79,000$0******$0******$55,758$0******
North Andover$68,819$71,667**$63,458$94,444**$89,196$0******$48,015****$44,385$29,688**
Rockport$53,462$0******$57,500$81,071****$51,538**$0******$38,636****$45,701$34,792****
Rowley$50,764$0******$42,305******$93,867$74,388**$0******$0******$48,443$14,523******
Salisbury$46,016$0******$42,117****$51,944****$69,489$0******$41,985**$42,083**$34,625**
Saugus$53,398$69,250**$55,962**$77,778**$59,167$0******$33,952**$51,595$30,577**
Swampscott$63,806$96,481$62,841**$67,679******$81,932$0******$36,875$51,307$29,625******
Topsfield$44,931******$0******$68,295$0******$76,985****$0******$0******$37,971$36,944******
Wenham$70,516$0******$64,167****$49,833******$104,875$0******$0******$53,309**$11,389******
West Newbury$65,000$64,500**$69,583**$74,886******$118,977******$0******$0******$52,788****$0******
Middlesex County, MA$60,322$85,648$59,843$79,255$79,379$63,063**$34,092$48,143$30,764
Lake County, IL$49,596$82,414$53,849$70,830$77,849$28,667$24,115$41,610$26,272
Westchester County, NY$59,529$87,719$69,196$82,630$90,593$44,191**$28,548$47,050$28,631
Massachusetts$52,382$80,307$57,180$73,003$72,358$49,577$31,474$43,822$30,598

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Figures in 2016 dollars. Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%.




Female to Male Earnings Ratio, by Occupation Type, 2008-12
All OccupationsComputer, Engineering and ScienceEducation, Legal, Community Service, Arts and MediaHealthcare Practitioners and TechnicalManagement, Business and FinancialNatural Resources, Construction and MaintenanceProduction, Transportation and Material MovingSales and OfficeService
Essex County, MA76%84%81%69%66%72%**65%76%69%
Amesbury76%107%84%106%**81%0%******67%****82%68%**
Beverly78%97%70%60%67%43%77%**75%78%
Gloucester74%67%******65%**140%****80%41%******80%******69%62%
Haverhill80%94%89%89%62%86%**65%76%69%
Lawrence77%70%******94%**125%**88%93%******72%76%87%
Lynn85%102%****92%99%82%67%******59%80%76%
Methuen83%72%**77%**64%75%103%****82%81%66%**
Newburyport76%85%******93%64%**67%**0%******68%******67%**50%******
Peabody80%73%**91%96%68%137%77%76%75%
Salem86%94%**95%143%70%0%******70%****92%82%**
Andover66%75%76%58%**63%0%******59%******62%50%**
Boxford65%**96%**54%40%******52%******64%******0%******64%******36%******
Danvers83%84%**113%**75%66%0%******58%80%80%**
Essex62%32%******85%******N/A******42%******0%******0%******65%****110%******
Georgetown83%92%******51%**35%**87%**0%******0%******87%60%****
Groveland82%**0%******106%******N/A******77%******0%******84%****105%**64%
Hamilton72%116%****87%**78%******80%****0%******29%****48%******53%******
Ipswich74%114%**91%53%******70%****0%******43%******53%**57%******
Lynnfield68%77%**58%18%******75%**0%******82%******76%73%******
Manchester64%**0%******80%28%******68%**0%******0%******55%******N/A******
Marblehead64%72%56%**29%**68%0%******124%77%**59%
Merrimac87%0%******75%55%58%**0%******33%******86%**41%**
Middleton81%103%******175%**39%******90%****0%******77%******93%33%****
Nahant79%**148%******70%**N/A**81%0%******0%******67%40%******
Newbury52%****136%******105%38%****58%******0%******0%******71%25%
North Andover66%86%85%46%**61%68%******90%******74%79%
Rockport84%256%****47%**71%******59%******0%******0%******93%86%
Rowley62%60%58%******108%**58%****0%******112%54%54%******
Salisbury76%70%******99%N/A******74%0%******56%86%67%**
Saugus83%104%******78%128%**81%127%******36%****93%69%**
Swampscott64%85%******64%61%****67%**0%******0%******49%104%
Topsfield64%92%53%**25%69%******0%******0%******58%**0%******
Wenham46%****0%******57%****49%******47%**0%******0%******93%******29%**
West Newbury56%**89%******88%66%******63%0%******0%******38%******55%******
Middlesex County, MA78%80%81%72%71%91%74%79%73%
Lake County, IL71%89%63%54%69%82%**61%72%78%
Westchester County, NY79%84%65%59%72%136%**67%73%78%
Massachusetts79%81%82%75%71%89%70%76%72%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%.




Median Earnings for Females, by Occupation Type, 2008-12
All OccupationsComputer, Engineering and ScienceEducation, Legal, Community Service, Arts and MediaHealthcare Practitioners and TechnicalManagement, Business and FinancialNatural Resources, Construction and MaintenanceProduction, Transportation and Material MovingSales and OfficeService
Essex County, MA$49,494$82,987$57,798$72,883$68,222$39,423**$30,166$43,818$29,412
Amesbury$53,539$108,847$49,395$73,118**$74,478$0******$35,810****$45,032$30,004**
Beverly$51,850$97,393$48,367$74,348$63,766$24,327$35,778**$43,794$36,909
Gloucester$45,202$64,249******$45,033**$65,106****$82,444$23,354******$43,467******$41,399$33,301
Haverhill$47,840$74,813$59,075$67,021$56,809$43,658**$33,540$42,569$28,295
Lawrence$30,991$49,782******$41,259**$77,896**$56,431$38,129******$25,327$29,451$27,418
Lynn$39,709$70,158****$55,231$65,745$54,584$31,063******$26,785$39,438$27,342
Methuen$47,977$67,240**$58,579**$62,478$62,105$58,497****$35,558$41,047$30,561**
Newburyport$67,042$93,448******$68,609$75,496**$82,270**$0******$31,838******$47,483**$40,294******
Peabody$48,212$73,399**$55,884$68,199$61,515$79,321$36,382$44,085$32,654
Salem$48,970$80,318**$54,494$88,124$58,084$0******$33,363****$44,416$28,716**
Andover$76,102$91,503$69,129$84,965**$91,688$0******$31,902******$55,444$33,277**
Boxford$72,472**$112,522**$73,770$77,653******$67,197******$36,366******$0******$59,698******$26,779******
Danvers$58,037$83,503**$61,938**$85,168$65,297$0******$35,507$46,133$36,211**
Essex$47,889$34,240******$49,600******$65,392******$42,705******$0******$0******$44,780****$26,230******
Georgetown$65,295$87,560******$47,288**$78,584**$95,086**$0******$0******$57,635$34,786****
Groveland$60,321**$0******$54,182******$71,244******$79,130******$0******$49,480****$64,279**$28,547
Hamilton$71,598$136,429****$69,040**$109,010******$96,869****$0******$27,083****$54,822******$36,477******
Ipswich$61,770$115,923**$67,567$60,540******$77,498****$0******$26,824******$44,404**$28,587******
Lynnfield$58,968$86,268**$68,061$46,830******$91,991**$0******$40,642******$43,594$43,743******
Manchester$72,662**$0******$65,768$74,215******$102,368**$0******$0******$62,791******$0******
Marblehead$68,886$78,826$58,052**$78,178**$95,234$0******$45,866$69,534**$33,606
Merrimac$60,471$0******$65,392$66,838$68,442**$0******$18,056******$52,126**$23,266**
Middleton$55,783$81,406******$66,099**$104,093******$90,998****$0******$42,038******$52,006$20,018****
Nahant$65,267**$166,352******$82,074**$140,259**$91,457$0******$0******$42,624$23,322******
Newbury$47,567****$154,894******$67,291$76,354****$80,558******$0******$0******$33,242$22,587
North Andover$64,686$97,934$67,543$80,847**$82,408$42,133******$46,811******$58,881$29,529
Rockport$57,220$142,795****$51,093**$63,819******$82,519******$0******$0******$50,913$39,122
Rowley$48,649$62,151$42,737******$104,427**$67,359****$0******$36,032$42,378$23,951******
Salisbury$49,669$57,251******$73,900$72,399******$61,982$0******$35,899$42,185$28,159**
Saugus$55,463$93,477******$60,676$71,302**$64,383$83,152******$20,066****$54,757$36,566**
Swampscott$59,032$79,627******$57,473$83,605****$76,068**$0******$0******$47,376$38,749
Topsfield$68,491$123,383$60,832**$66,931$81,258******$0******$0******$52,428**$0******
Wenham$52,598****$0******$66,578****$53,349******$103,760**$0******$0******$52,047******$32,563**
West Newbury$63,612**$115,771******$67,728$74,543******$109,098$0******$0******$34,031******$47,133******
Middlesex County, MA$57,030$81,154$59,520$76,324$76,182$50,162$34,063$46,839$31,458
Lake County, IL$50,106$85,596$54,690$73,542$78,087$44,802**$25,533$42,068$26,204
Westchester County, NY$58,561$84,462$68,379$85,953$91,029$67,856**$29,518$49,669$31,308
Massachusetts$50,948$75,342$56,543$72,191$68,822$48,378$32,123$43,699$30,998

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Figures in 2016 dollars. Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%.




INDICATORS TREND | ESSEX COUNTY